A retaining wall is a structure that holds back structure or area. The retaining wall is downslope, prevents erosion and provides support for vertical or almost vertical. Cofferdams and bulkheads, structures that hold water, are sometimes also considered retaining walls.
Retaining walls are generally made of stone, stone, brick, concrete, vinyl, steel or wood. After being popular as an inexpensive retaining material, rails have fallen out of use due to environmental concerns.
A wall, whether standing alone or later strengthening, to resist changes in soil or surface and reject other forces of material that come in contact with the side of the wall, thus preventing the mass from shifting to a lower height.
A generic structure used to hold vertically or almost vertically on the surface of the ground. Retaining walls must resist lateral pressure of the ground, which tends to cause the structure to slide or reverse.
Wall pile sheets are usually used in soft soil and meeting rooms. Stacks of walls made of steel, vinyl or wooden planks that are plugged into the ground.
To estimate the depth, usually 1/3 material is above the ground, 2/3 is underground, but this can change depending on the environment.
Higher pile of wall sheets will require back anchor ties, or “dead people” are placed in the ground at a distance from the face behind the wall, which is attached to the wall, usually with a cable or a stem.
It is very important to have drainage right behind the wall because it is important for the performance of retaining walls.
Drainage material will reduce or eliminate hydrostatic pressure and will therefore greatly increase the stability of the material behind the wall, assuming that this is not a retaining wall.
Considerations and selection of wall types are driven by several factors. These factors include:
– Place elevation
– Ease and speed of construction
– Groundwater conditions and soil characteristics.
Other factors can include skilled labor and availability of materials, buildings, site accessibility, aesthetics, local building practices, etc.
Ultimately, all retaining walls function to hold vertical or near vertical ground, without adequate retention, caves, degeneration or slide to a more natural slope.
In most countries, the design of retaining walls higher than about four feet must be designed or approved by qualified, licensed professional engineers.
In addition, it is important to check and comply with local building regulations before any construction, even when the walls are shorter than four feet. Retaining walls, and must always be seen as members bear the first burden, and a second groundscapes aesthetic.
Designing any type of retaining wall requires knowledge of lateral soil pressure. This includes checks to tear down walls, sliding bases, and capacity soils that can cause malfunction of retaining walls. After the wall is planned, each member wall is examined for sufficient strength and is determined to strengthen the steel.
One of the most common failures of retaining walls is inevitable tilting, cracking and bending of bricks, wood and concrete block retaining walls built by homeowners, both meaning builders, and landscapers This is the real “problem” that can make failure, because the wall does not do that task and that is to hold the ground.
Failure also clearly shows the lack of knowledge or design required by retaining wall designs. By understanding how a wall works, and how it can fail, it is possible to design a retaining structure that will meet all environmental, structural conditions, and also meet the demands of development.
And the most important in the proper design and installation of retaining walls is that the material still strives to move forward and gravity downslope.
This creates lateral soil pressure behind the wall which depends on the internal angle of friction (phi) and the cohesive strength (c) of the material stored, as well as the direction and magnitude of the structural movement to maintain that occurs.
Lateral soil pressure is usually the smallest at the top of the wall and increases downward. Earth’s pressure will push the wall forward and knock down the wall if it is not handled properly.
Also, any soil behind the wall that is not spread by a drainage causes the horizontal system to add hydrostatic pressure to the wall.
For example, the International Building Code requires retaining walls that are designed to ensure reverse stability, slides, excessive pressure and water lifting forces, and retaining walls designed for shear safety factors and things that can overturn laterally
Retaining walls are often used in marine environments, where they are built apart from ground water. Gravity walls (known as seawalls) can be built where strong waves and currents are applied to the wall.
Several different materials can be used to build retaining walls. Stone and concrete are often used, and there are special block retaining walls made from aggregate and lightweight concrete designed for this purpose.
Some holding-holding styles make assembly simple, cheaper and less time-consuming, because each block is safe as needed. Because the compatibility of this block is safe, they don’t need special additions.
A wall can maintain a series of “steps” or levels, which allow for more attractive designs and more efficient erosion control. The design can cover various types of plantations, materials or materials at each level to bring more texture.
In addition to aesthetic value, a tiered design also provides better erosion control by breaking down the amount of soil, and pressure, which is carried out by each division of retaining wall.
Large stones and rails are often used to build tiered retaining walls in the past. And which is popular today, there are many styles and types of block retaining walls.
Retaining Wall Planning
For the implementation of land retaining wall planning, the steps of the activities that must be carried out are as follows:
1. Estimating the size or dimensions of a retaining wall.
2. Look for the amount of soil pressure, both analytically and graphically based on ways that are suitable for the type of retaining wall.
3. The basic width of the retaining wall must be sufficient to mobilize the carrying capacity of the soil.
4. Calculation of the strength of the structure from the construction of soil retainers, namely by examining the shear stress and and pressures allowed from the retaining wall.
5. The retaining wall must be safe from sliding stability (sliding stability)
6. The retaining wall must be safe from overtuning stability
7. Review of the location environment of the placement of retaining walls.
Basically the dimensions or size of the retaining wall are distinguished Gravitational walls or muscular walls To get the total soil pressure at work, the calculation is done graphically if the Coulomb method is used.
Keyword: Retaining Walls